Unit 13 - Reactions Against Political Revolutions

  • Review Unit #13: Reactions to Political Revolutions


    • the new government of France (after the Revolution) was weak – Napoleon took it over and made himself Emperor
    • he made France strong again    
      • improved the economy
      • created public education
      • created the Napoleonic Code (set of laws for everyone to follow)
      • built a huge army
    • used the huge army to take over most of Europe
    • spread the seeds of the French Revolution (democracy) to other areas of Europe
    • was finally defeated and banished to a far away island (St. Helena) and died there


    • a meeting of European leaders
      • Conservative: to reorganize Europe the way it was before Napoleon took over
        • put borders back the way they were
        • reinstall kings and Queens that had been in power
      • Balance of Power:  don’t let any one nation in Europe get so powerful again


    there were many small revolutions all over Europe that year


    Nationalism is the act of creating a nation

    • Unifying Nationalism: when people that have common binds decide to come together to form a new nation
      • GERMANY: organized by Otto von Bismark
      • ITALY: organized by Guiseppe Garibaldi
    • Separating Nationalism:   when different ethnic groups within a nation want to form their own—separate nations
      • AUSTRIA:  Hungarians, Serbs, Germans, and other small ethnic groups wanted their own nations
    • Independence Nationalism: when a colony wants independence from another power
      • LATIN AMERICA: wanted freedom from Spanish, Portuguese and French control

    If you already have a nation – nationalism is the pride (patriotism) you have for that nation


    • was not affected by the revolutionary ideas that were sweeping the rest of Europe at this time
    • freed their serfs (finally) in the middle of the 1800’s—This created a huge peasant class that was very poor


    • after the revolutions—not much changed
      • the Europeans left
      • rich land owners became the new leaders (they paid the military to support them)
      • poor peasants remained poor peasants—the revolution had little affect on them
      • rural (out in the country) gang leaders called caudillos terrorized peasants and controlled large rural areas
      • The Roman Catholic Church continued to try to keep peace between the strong (caudillos and landowners) and the weak (peasants)

    Mexican Revolution (1910–1930)

    • Causes:
      • Wealth was all going to a small upper class
      • Leader (Diaz) brutally suppressed all opposition
    • Revolution led by Zapta (leader of southern Native Americans)—“Poncho” Villa (northern bandit)
    • Results:
      • Rebels won – more rights and land to workers and women
      • New Constitution:  first Latin American country to give good changes to the common people
      • More Mexican control of trade and industry (not foreign [Spanish] control)