Unit 14 - Industrial Revolution

  • Review Unit #14: Industrial Revolution


    Agricultural Revolution: a change in the way food was produced (sometimes called the Agrarian Revolution)

    Industrial Revolution: a change in the way things were made

    • Domestic System: making products by hand – in a home – by one person
    • Factory System: making products by machine – in a factory – using many people


    New Methods: new machines, enclosed fields, crop rotation, better animal breeding


    • More food was produced for people – using less workers     
    • More food caused the population to grow              
    • Ex-farm workers moved out of the country and into the cities – for new jobs in the factories


    5 Things a Nation should have to be successful industrially:

    • Capital (Investment money)
    • Labor Force (workers)
    • Raw Materials                  
    • Transportation System (Rivers, Canals, Railroads, Harbors)
    • Market for selling products

    Great Britain was very successful industrially – because it had a lot of the above items



    • Urbanization—too many people moved to the cities—too fast! → overcrowded, unsafe, unhealthy
    • Poor Working Conditions—unsafe machinery and buildings, long work hours, low pay, child labor


    • Improved Transportation—Faster and safer
    • Rising Standard of Living—in general, more people had jobs, with regular pay, and could buy more things than before



    • based on Adam Smith’s book The Wealth of Nations
    • belief that governments should NOT interfere with business activities
    • less regulation and laws is good for business

    Liberalism vs. Conservatism:

    • two different views about how society should work
    • Conservatism:
      • Society should try to preserve the old ways of doing things
      • favored the old Monarchies
      • wanted Nobles and the govt. to control business decisions
    • Liberalism:
      • As times change—societies should change
      • supported the new Republics
      • Laissez-Faire (no govt. involvement in business)

    Social Darwinism:

    • based on Charles Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species
      • outlining the “theory of evolution” (survival of the fittest)
    • Social Darwinism: Darwin’s survival ideas applied to social ideas:
      • In business:  do what ever you have to do to survive
      • War: weed out the weaker nations
      • Race relations: used to justify racism à which then increased

    Social Reforms:

    • Sadler Report: Report on the abuses of child labor said it was NOT a good thing for society
    • Child Labor  Laws were passed to get the kids out of the factories—and into public schools (which began then)
    • Trade Unions:—organized workers to demand better working conditions (less hours, better pay, safer conditions)
    • Suffrage: extending the right to vote:  first to all men—then to women as well

    The Arts:

    • Romanticism: art based on emotion—the dreams of revolution—fantasy, imagination, past glories
    • Realism: art meant to show how the world really was—even the harsh realities—the works of Charles Dickens,
    • Impressionism: a reaction against Realism—looking to future dreams—based on an artist’s impression of real
    • Global Migration: large groups of people moved from some places on Earth to others

    Reasons: overpopulation, poor living conditions, poor working conditions, oppressive governments, better transportation