Unit 16 - World Wars

  • Review Unit #16: The World Wars



    • National Rivalries: Competitive relationships between European powers—“Balance of Power” —Imperialism in Africa
    • Militarism: new industrial technologies encouraged nations to create and stockpile more and more weapons
    • Alliances: to balance the power—nations joined sides with other nations to protect one another
    • Assassination: Archduke Ferdinand’s assassination sparked the alliances into starting World War I


    • Trench Warfare: fighting took place in “trenches” (long ditches that hardly moved throughout the war)
    • Propaganda: organized information created to sway public opinion on an issue—both sides used it


    • Treaty of Versailles Severely punished Germany; it indirectly led to some of the causes of World War II
    • League of Nations: created to keep peace in the world—ended up being very ineffective
    • New Europe: many of the old “Empires” and “Kingdoms” broken up à beginning of modern national states 


    Hitler’s rise to power:

    • Germany’s poor economic situation caused them to look for a strong leader
    • Hitler made promises to the people:
      • Jobs 
        1. in the Army  
        2. in the factories making military supplies (against the Versailles Treaty!)
      • Get their Pride back 
        1. get Germany’s land back  
        2. build up the Army again

    Hitler’s Germany:

    • Totalitarian Government—a type of government with total control of all parts of life (learning, art, literature, etc.)
    • Fascism:  a type of government that is totalitarian—and—very nationalistic (a lot of national pride)
    • Nazi Ideas—Nazi’s were the political party that Hitler controlled and helped him control Germany
      • wanted to develop the Aryan race
      • wanted to expand German territory throughout Europe
      • used extensive propaganda to spread their ideas and control the people
    • The Holocaust—an event taking place during WWII—Jews and other minorities were concentrated and many killed
      • Genocide—the mass killing of a race or culture of people
      • Hitler’s plan:
        1. Harass and torment the Jews—maybe they would leave on their own
        2. Concentrate them—placed in concentration camps—separated them from “Germans”
        3. The “Final Solution”—extermination in mass numbers


    In Europe: The focus of the European part of WWII was Allies against Germany


    • German Aggression: Germany kept reclaiming lands lost after WWI (Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Poland)
    • Appeasement: Britain and France kept allowing Hitler to take lands – because they did not want another war

    The War

    • Mobil Warfare: blitzkrieg (lightning war), air war, naval war
    • Modern Technology: effective use of airplanes and tanks, rockets introduced, development of atomic bomb
    • Key Events: Battle of Britain, German invasion of USSR, Involvement of US, D-Day


    • Germany: was divided up by the Allies—German officials tried at Nuremberg Trials
    • End of the system of European colonies around the world (Europeans did not want to fight to defend them)
    • United Nations was created (to replace the ineffective League of Nations)
    • The Cold War began—U.S. and the U.S.S.R., former allies, turned on one another

    In Asia: The focus of the Asian part of WWII was Allies against Japan


    • Japanese Imperialism: Japan needed more raw materials—Korea, China, S.E. Asia  → Pearl Harbor attack

    The War

    • Japanese abuses: Nanking and Korea – abuse against citizens  Bataan—“Bataan Death March” abused prisoners of war
    • “Island Hopping”: How the Allies approached Japan—Taking an island and forcing Japan to withdraw towards Japan
    • The Atomic Bomb was used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan—ending WWII


    • The U.S. occupied Japan for seven years—helped them rebuild—made them create a democratic style of government