Unit 16 - World Wars

  • Review Unit #16: The World Wars
     

    WORLD WAR  I

    Causes:

    • National Rivalries: Competitive relationships between European powers—“Balance of Power” —Imperialism in Africa
    • Militarism: new industrial technologies encouraged nations to create and stockpile more and more weapons
    • Alliances: to balance the power—nations joined sides with other nations to protect one another
    • Assassination: Archduke Ferdinand’s assassination sparked the alliances into starting World War I

    Warfare: 

    • Trench Warfare: fighting took place in “trenches” (long ditches that hardly moved throughout the war)
    • Propaganda: organized information created to sway public opinion on an issue—both sides used it

    Results:

    • Treaty of Versailles Severely punished Germany; it indirectly led to some of the causes of World War II
    • League of Nations: created to keep peace in the world—ended up being very ineffective
    • New Europe: many of the old “Empires” and “Kingdoms” broken up à beginning of modern national states 

    BETWEEN THE WARS

    Hitler’s rise to power:

    • Germany’s poor economic situation caused them to look for a strong leader
    • Hitler made promises to the people:
      • Jobs 
        1. in the Army  
        2. in the factories making military supplies (against the Versailles Treaty!)
      • Get their Pride back 
        1. get Germany’s land back  
        2. build up the Army again

    Hitler’s Germany:

    • Totalitarian Government—a type of government with total control of all parts of life (learning, art, literature, etc.)
    • Fascism:  a type of government that is totalitarian—and—very nationalistic (a lot of national pride)
    • Nazi Ideas—Nazi’s were the political party that Hitler controlled and helped him control Germany
      • wanted to develop the Aryan race
      • wanted to expand German territory throughout Europe
      • used extensive propaganda to spread their ideas and control the people
    • The Holocaust—an event taking place during WWII—Jews and other minorities were concentrated and many killed
      • Genocide—the mass killing of a race or culture of people
      • Hitler’s plan:
        1. Harass and torment the Jews—maybe they would leave on their own
        2. Concentrate them—placed in concentration camps—separated them from “Germans”
        3. The “Final Solution”—extermination in mass numbers

    WORLD WAR II

    In Europe: The focus of the European part of WWII was Allies against Germany

    Causes

    • German Aggression: Germany kept reclaiming lands lost after WWI (Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland, Poland)
    • Appeasement: Britain and France kept allowing Hitler to take lands – because they did not want another war

    The War

    • Mobil Warfare: blitzkrieg (lightning war), air war, naval war
    • Modern Technology: effective use of airplanes and tanks, rockets introduced, development of atomic bomb
    • Key Events: Battle of Britain, German invasion of USSR, Involvement of US, D-Day

    Results

    • Germany: was divided up by the Allies—German officials tried at Nuremberg Trials
    • End of the system of European colonies around the world (Europeans did not want to fight to defend them)
    • United Nations was created (to replace the ineffective League of Nations)
    • The Cold War began—U.S. and the U.S.S.R., former allies, turned on one another

    In Asia: The focus of the Asian part of WWII was Allies against Japan

    Causes

    • Japanese Imperialism: Japan needed more raw materials—Korea, China, S.E. Asia  → Pearl Harbor attack

    The War

    • Japanese abuses: Nanking and Korea – abuse against citizens  Bataan—“Bataan Death March” abused prisoners of war
    • “Island Hopping”: How the Allies approached Japan—Taking an island and forcing Japan to withdraw towards Japan
    • The Atomic Bomb was used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan—ending WWII

    Results

    • The U.S. occupied Japan for seven years—helped them rebuild—made them create a democratic style of government